The manufacture of steel from a lowgrade iron ore involves processes like mining, crushing, separating, concentrating, mixing, pelletizing, and shipping. Characterisation of the physical and metallurgical properties. His process involved grinding taconite to remove gangues and upgrading the iron ore i. Vale is the worlds biggest producer of iron ore and pellets, raw materials essential to the manufacture of steel. Because pellets are used in large proportion, which is still rising due to the lack of supply of high quality lump ores, there is an increasing interest to research and to improve the properties of iron ore pellets. During iron ore agglomeration or pelletization, moist iron concentrate particles and flux materials are rolled into balls with the. Iron ore is found in nature in the form of rocks, mixed with other elements. There is a very large market for gold stone mines and minerals and so we use gold stone brands for iron ore pelletization. Notice of the institution of the conunissions investigation and of a public hearing to be held in connection therewith was given by posting copies of the notice in the. Metso is supplier of both straight grate and grate kiln pellet plants. The gratekiln system and the straight grate system. The effects of pellet diameter, moisture, grate velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the pellet bed temperature were studied.
Iron ore pelletizing clariant mining solutions youtube. Pelletizing is the process of compressing or molding a material into the shape of a pellet. During the washing and processing of iron ores, slimes less than 0. Should the pelletizing of iron ore concentrate be considered.
Cold bonding is a lowtemperature alternative to heat induration. Floform iron ore pelletization floform, an alternative. High grade iron ore less than 10% of the total reserves. Pellets manufacturing high quality pellet with low phosphorous 2. High handling speeds and high plant availability are both essential. As a binding agent in the production of iron ore pellets, kutch bentonite has higher natural percentage of iron, which is ideal in isolating iron ore pellets with the maximum percentage of iron. Metso metso iron ore pelletization iron ore pelletization. Introduction to iron ore pellets and pelletizing processes. Pelletization prosess pelletization is the process of making spheres of high carbon contains uniform quality iron ore. Floform iron ore pelletization 4 n product, packaging and delivery floform is readily miscible with the iron ore concentrate. Pelletizing tests were carried out on the hematite and magnetite premixed pellet feed. This chapter shows the status of the pelletizing process. The iron ore pelletizing process consists of three main steps.
Higher production higher iron content lower energy robust pellets. Pelletizing of iron ore was started in the 1950s to facilitate the utilization of finely ground iron ore concentrates in steel production. Iron ore concentrate pellets are traditionally hardened at high temperatures in horizontal grates and gratekiln furnaces. Iron ore roasting or sintering including pelletisation.
However several drawbacks of bentonite have been observed such as an impurity due to its. Enhancement of the performance of equipment and components in service is one of its central strengths. A wide range of different materials are pelletized including chemicals, iron ore, animal compound feed. Pdf iron ore pelletization technology and its environmental. Effectiveness of organic binders for iron ore pellenzation by larry a. Floform iron ore pelletization snf holding company. Waste management by pelletization of iron ores fines in indian context 122 prior to induration with the help of an electronic mass balance for accurate reading. Kiocl is an export oriented unit eou and a government of india enterprise under the ministry of steel engaged in manufacturing and marketing of iron ore pellets. The iron ore production has significantly expanded in recent years, owing to increasing steel demands in developing countries. Iron ore pellets are widely employed in blast furnaces to produce pig iron. Water addition, particle size distribution, ore porosity, surface properties of the iron ore and wettability of the iron ore by water are the most important factors that affect the. The pelletization process is the primary consumer of binders in the iron ore industry. In this work, focus is on the gratekiln pelletizing process and. A collective genius to deliver innovation solution, tailored to unique needs backed by our proprietary tools, established methodologies and experienced professional aided us into product integration in the.
Handling iron ore pellets the system main equipments are the 8400 tph bucket wheel reclaimer, a 240 m3 bin, an apron feeder and a 6100 tph 3. The majority of iron ores must be ground to a fine particle size to allow the iron oxides they contain to be concentrated, and the concentrate must then be agglomerated back into large enough particles that they can be processed in blast furnaces. Influence of beneficiation plant pellet grade iron ore fines. Rom iron ore with fe less than 58 60% discarded as waste. It gives excellent binding property to green and dry pellet properties. Kiocl sells pellets in overseas markets among empanelled customers on fob st new mangalore port basis. One way to upgrade iron ore is to process it into pellets.
Iron ore fines are agglomerated into pellets and then indurated using a furnace to create iron ore pellets. Iron ore pelletizing gratekiln system brochure metso. Iron ore pelletization rotary kiln pdf travel mafia. Pelletizing is commonly used when the ore needs to be shipped great distances to the blast furnace due to the better durability of pellets 5, 6. Pelletizing a pellet plant contains a series of balling drums where the iron ore concentrate is formed into soft pellets, in much the same manner that one rolls a snowball, to make a pellet about the size of. Pradhan associate professor, mining engineering department national institute of technology, rourkela inspector of mines, government of odisha abstract iron ore is primarily found as the oxides of iron. Present study also show the data base on the present status of iron ore pelletization plant and its environmental status in the eastern region of india and also proposed to conduct a detailed study of environmental status of iron ore pelletization plant in this region. The majority of iron ores must be ground to a fine particle size to allow the iron oxides they contain to be concentrated, and the concentrate. So after the pelletizing and screening operations, iron ore pellets have to be hardened in a furnace through a firing process. A novel iron ore pelletization for increased strength under. Froth flotation of iron ores mark ma csiro process science and engineering, box 312, clayton, victoria, 3169, australia abstract with the depleting reserves of highgrade iron ore in the world, froth flotation has become increasingly important to process intermediate and lowgrade iron ore in an attempt to meet the rapidly growing demand on the. Full details can be found on the msds supplied with the product.
Sintering and pelletization are the most important agglomeration technologies, in this way, in the eu27, 14 countries operate 34 iron ore sinter plants with 63. Iron ore pelletization technology and its environmental impact assessment in eastern region of india a case study. Although the dcs was furnished by a major supplier, there were certain specific requirements for a project that its builtin features could not meet. The project involves setting up of 4,50,000 tpa capacity iron ore pelletization plant, 2,00,000 tpa of sponge iron plant and installation of a induction furnace of capacity 1,50,000 tpa 25 tpc x 2 and rolling mill tpd x 2 of capacity 6,60,000 tpa. Scope for future studies during the pellet plant commissioning, it was observed that the iron ore rich in hydroxide mineral like goethite behaves totally different as compared to hematite rich ore.
Hyperactivation of bentonite in pelletizing process. Feb 16, 20 pelletization process of iron ore ppt download gold ore crusher. However, heat induration requires tremendous quantities of energy to produce highquality pellets, and is consequently expensive. In this study, tests were carried out on muko iron ore from uganda to analyse its suitability to meet the feed requirements of. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of. These are typically fed to a blast furnace or dri plant as part of the process to make steel.
The iron ore concentrate is now mixed and ready for the pelletizing process. Pelletizing iron ore the equipment used to pelletize iron ore needs to be capable of conveying, feeding, mixing and screening a wide range of materials under the toughest conditions. Iron ore pelletizing industry metal 7 stands out in the industry for its unique expertise in material and surface engineering. In iron ore pelletization, process parameters, size of the iron ore fines % of 45micron size, fuel content of the mix, as well as pellet chemistry govern the microstructural.
Iron ore pellets are marblesized balls of iron ore that are fused with clay for transportation, and used in steel manufacture. Binders accomplish two very important functions in iron ore pelletization. The pelletization procedure consists of agglomerating the ore powder into green balls or. The use of conventional bentonite binder is favorable in terms of mechanical and metallurgical pellet properties, however, because of its acid constituents bentonite is considered as impurity especially for iron ores with high acidic content. However, the content of iron in ore deposits has deteriorated and lowgrade iron ore has been processed. Iron ore pelletization has been identified as an alternative substitute for steel making process. In the present investigation, a typical iron ore slime sample containing 59. Iron ore pellets are spheres of typically 616 mm 0. Bureau of mines investigated the use of organic binders as substitutes for bentonite in. Pdf results for iron ore pelletizing process free search result for. Metso metso iron ore pelletization iron ore pelletization the right choice steven steven furedyfuredy product manager iron ore pelletizingproduct manager iron ore pelletizing. Iron ore beneficiation blaine in cm2g and wi is the clinker work index kwhshort ton when considering the energy required for 1 tonne of cement clinker use of boron compounds as binders in iron ore pelletization. Agglomeration of iron ore pellet begins with the grinding and cleaning of the iron ore to meet the desired chemical quality.
System engineers at an iron ore pelletizing plant in the middle east needed to augment the functionality of their plants dcs. Such a process includes several stages involving complex fluid dynamics. In the steel production process, there are two main steps. Mar 19, 20 iron ore required to produce 1 ton of clinker for cement. Control of the grain size distribution of t the raw material. The fines resulting from the concentration process must be agglomerated for use in iron and steelmaking. Iron ore pelletization 459 minerals demonstrated that addition of organic binder 0. Necessity of pelletization the configuration of iron ore powder in the blast furnace is more tightly packed and restricts the air flow. Modelling of the iron ore pelletising process this article discusses a pelletising process model that was developed by algoness specifically for the technical and economic evaluation of iron ore concentrates, and comparing performance when raw materials are to be substituted. It not only controls the moisture in iron concentrate but also remarkably improves physical properties of the pellets. Iron ore pellet production at lkab agglomeration seminar nykosi, trondheim kent tano. Azari department of materials engineering, isfahan university of technology, iran received february 4, 2004. Overall, iron production methods have optimal requirements with respect to the feed materials especially iron ore. Review of organic binders for iron ore agglomeration j.
The most common agglomeration technique is pelletization, which requires the use of binders to hold the iron oxide grains together so that the. Should the pelletizing of iron ore concentrate be considered a mining or a metallurgical activity. The selection of an appropriate binder type and dosage is of critical importance in producing good quality pellets at a reasonable price. Hyperactivation of bentonite in pelletizing process a. Modelling of the iron ore pelletising process algoness. A mathematical model of drying and preheating processes in a traveling grate was presented based on the laws of mass, momentum, heat transfer, and drying semiempirical relations. Data reported at or after these timestamps is not considered in the assessment process.
Pellets can be cold bonded using lime, cement, sponge iron powder, and. A field test was systematically carried out in a traveling grate. Iron ore pellets and pelletization process ispatguru. Enhanced rate and degree of iron ore reduction are due to secondary reactions involving carbon dioxide and the volatiles. Arol2 1 adana science and technology university, faculty of engineering and natural sciences, dept. The following iron ore specifications guide contains the primary specifications and methodologies for platts iron ore assessments throughout the world. The present study aims to investigate the use of mixed hematite and magnetite ores in iron ore pellet production. Sep 25 2017 the production of iron ore pellets is often performed in the socalled gratekiln process the aim of the process is to oxidize the magnetite fe3o4 to hematite. Process flexibility pelletization process there are two main processes for producing iron ore pellets. Drying and preheating processes of iron ore pellets in a. For the pelletizing of iron ore there are two main types of processes namely, the straight travelling grate stg process and. Characterization of humic acid modified bentonite binder. These slimes need processing as they cannot be used directly in blast furnaces.
Once fired, they can be handled, loaded in ships or trains and delivered to the end users. Effectiveness of organic binders for iron ore pelletization. Concentrateground iron ore of typical size 80 % less than 45. P2g technologies in iron ore pelletizing process 5th researchers seminar 15. Discover everything scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Iron ore pelletization technology and its environmental. Steel community and the country demand technological solutions for utilising low grade ores. The blast furnace is still the dominant form of iron production, but over the years, direct reduction methods have increased due to a number of reasons. A bentonite has been using as a binder to iron ore pelletization from very beginning. Iron ore reserves are normally found within a few meters from the ground surface, and most of the major mines of the world are operating an opencut system, which requires little sophistication, except in terms of the equipment used and the quantities needed to be mined for operations to be costeffective. The resultant highgrade ore is in the form of fine particles, as small as 0.
Lkab is the worlds 3rd largest producer of iron ore pellets europe lkab is the eus largest iron ore producer and mines around 76 percent of all iron ore in the eu 90% of lkabs revenue comes from pellet sales lkab is one of swedens oldest. However, sinter and pellets are now the dominant blast furnace burden, because the natural lump supply has declined dramatically due to depletion of the worlds highgrade competent iron ore resources. This paper mainly involves the functions and molecular structure of ideal organic binders for iron ore pelletization based on fundamental principles of molecular design, interface chemistry. This chapter will look at case studies that define. The moisture requirement in green pelletizing and drying, preheating and firing temperatures differ for goethite rich ores as compared to. They typically contain 67%72% fe and various additional material adjusting the chemical composition and the metallurgic properties of the pellets. These are the timestamps used for platts iron ore assessments. Use of boron compounds as binders in iron ore pelletization. Beneficiation plants and pelletizing plants for utilizing. After beneficiation iron ore availability can improve by about 50%. Once weighed, the pellets were indurated in a preheated muffle furnace at varying temperatures, each for duration of 45 minutes. Due to the shortage of good quality lumps ore fines.
Pellets reduced at 1550 c show carbon dissolution up to 4 wt%, high porosity, low sulphur and slag levels. Anew kind of iron ore pellet binder named humic acid modifying bentonite hamb has been developed by the authors group, which has the advantages of both organic ha and inorganic bentonite. Pelletizing a pellet plant contains a series of balling drums where the iron ore concentrate is formed into soft pellets, in much the same manner that one rolls a snowball, to make a pellet about the size of a marble between 14 and 12. Precipitation and stability of reversed austenite in 9ni steel. There are six pelletizing plants at mining sites, which are technically integrated and summarized as three. Sodium in soda ash replaces some of the calcium and magnesium in the bentonite lattice and thereby improves the binding efficiency of cabentonite. By means of various industrial processes incorporating cuttingedge technology, iron ore is processed and then sold to steel companies.
Iron ore pelletization technology and its environmental impact assessment in eastern region of india. Review of organic binders for iron ore agglomeration. Iron ore agglomeration is a wet agglomeration process. Pdf the study of pelletizing of mixed hematite and. Pelletization and iron ore reduction are accompanied by great reduction in energy and carbon dioxide emission. Mar 20, 20 analysis of the swelling behaviour of pellets. Iron ore pelletization,iron ore fines pelletization,iron ore. The dried material is fed to the ball mill for grinding. Produce quality pdf files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Raw material preparation during the process for pelletization iron ore concentrate from iron ore beneficiation plant is dried and heated to around 120 deg c. Iron ore lump, sinter, and pellets comprise the main burden of modern blast furnaces.1003 1398 795 889 1074 1496 58 1113 595 556 1594 397 1639 1670 877 1236 743 537 492 450 114 857 1584 376 267 135 160 1315 1059 1502 134 168 503 576 468 1199 231 1389 300 1285 1311 377 760 1056 1153 603 814 1458